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Virtual Machine Performance Metrics in VMware vCloud Director 9.0

Starting with VMware vCloud Director® 5.6, service providers have been able to configure vCloud Director to store metrics that it collects on virtual machine performance and resource consumption. Data for historic metrics is stored in a Cassandra and KairosDB database.

VMware Cloud Providers™ can set up database schema to store basic VM historical performance and resource consumption metrics (CPU, memory and storage), which are collected every 5 minutes (with 20 seconds granularity) by a StatsFeeder process running on the vCloud Director cells. These metrics are then are pushed to a Cassandra NoSQL database cluster with KairosDB persistent storage.

However, this implementation has several limitations, including the following:

• Uses Kairos on top of Cassandra, with an extra layer to maintain
• Supports an outdated version of Kairos DB 0.9.1 and Cassandra 1.2.x/2.0.x
• VMware vCenter Server® does not provide metrics for NFS-based storage
• Difficult to maintain the size of performance data, there is no TTL setting
• Lack of SSL support

With vCloud Director 9.0, VMware has made the following enhancements:

• Provides hybrid mode (you can still choose to use KairosDB)
• Uses a native Cassandra schema and support Cassandra 3.x
• Uses SSL
• Uses vCloud Director entity IDs to tag data in Cassandra instead of Moref/VC-id
• Adds the CMT command to configure a Cassandra cluster


After the service provider has successfully implemented this VM performance metrics collecting mechanism, vCloud Director tenant users can directly view their VM’s performance chart from within their vCloud Director 9.0 tenant HTML5 user interface. Service providers are no longer required to use the API call for this purpose, enabling them to offer this benefit to their customers in a much simpler way.

To configure basic VM metrics for vCloud Director 9.0, follow the steps in “Install and Configure Optional Database Software to Store and Retrieve Historic Virtual Machine Performance Metrics” in the vCloud Director 9.0 Installation and Upgrade Guide here. In this version, the configuration file does not need to be generated first. Simply follow the documented steps and everything will automatically be done for you.

If you issue the cell-management-tool configure-metrics –metrics-config /tmp/metrics.groovy command described here, you might have a problem adding schema (as shown in the following screen capture) where vCloud Director 9.0 cannot start up normally and is stopped at the com.vmware.vcloud.metrices-core process.

You must perform the following steps before running the cell-management-tool cassandra command, because it will try to add the same schema again which will cause the error:

1. Remove the keyspace on Cassandra:
# cqlsh –ucassandra –pcassandra; // or other super account
#  drop keyspace vcloud_metrics;

2. Edit the content of the /tmp/metrics.groovy file to:

configuration {

3. Run the following command:
# cell-management-tool configure-metrics –metrics-config /tmp/metrics.groovy

4. Run the following command (replace with your Cassandra user and IPs):
# cell-management-tool cassandra –configure –create-schema –cluster-nodes ip1,ip2,ip3,ip4 –username cassandra –password ‘cassandra’ –ttl 15 –port 9042


• See the latest vCloud Director 9.0 release notes here for supported vCloud Director Cassandra versions:
– Cassandra 2.2.6 (deprecated for new installations. Supported for legacy upgrades still using KairosDB)
– Cassandra 3.x (3.9 recommended)

• See the vCAT blog at https://blogs.vmware.com/vcat/2015/08/vmware-vcloud-director-virtual-machine-metric-database.html for detailed VM metrics explanations.

• The service provider can implement a more advanced tenant-facing performance monitoring solution for their tenants by using the VMware vRealize® Operations Manager™ Tenant App for vCloud Director, which provides a tenant administrator visibility in to their vCloud Director environment. For more information, go to https://marketplace.vmware.com/vsx/solutions/management-pack-for-vcloud-director.

• There is no need to setup additional Load Balancer in front of a Cassandra Cluster, Cassandra’s Java driver is smart enough in terms of load balancing the request between the Cassandra nodes.

One thought on “Virtual Machine Performance Metrics in VMware vCloud Director 9.0

  1. Jeff

    Very good!

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