Introduction to appliances and updates
VMware Studio builds VMs. As
a part of VM building, VMware Studio 2.0 embeds an in-guest agent also known as
VAMI (Virtual Appliance Management Infrastructure) for Linux VMs, this in-guest
agent allows users to configure system parameters, example: timezone, configure
networking parameters, example: specifying ip addresses, and optionally update
A VM with update agent
installed/enabled is considered to be a virtual appliance, and the user of the
appliance can update the appliance with a single-click. The update model
provided by VMware Studio for appliances is a pseudo-firmware model, where a
single update will update all the components (application packages) in the
virtual appliance. The update includes both OS updates, and updates for the application,
this ensures that an update applied to the appliance doesn’t break the
Appliance builder can publish
updates easily using Studio 2.0, updates are published to an update repository as a part of an appliance
build. An update consists of a set of packages that are in native package
formats (i.e. either rpms or debs based on the Linux flavor), as a result
updates can be tracked using existing package managers, and as an appliance
builder updates for non-application packages (OS updates) are easier to find.
Publishing Updates for your Appliance
Updates are published during build
During the creation of a
build profile to build a VM, the appliance author specifies the list of
application packages and OS packages that are to be installed for the
When Studio builds the VM, it
can determine all the packages that were installed on the appliance, Studio
uses this information to create an update repository as a part of the build.
The update repository contains a manifest file which lists all the packages
that were installed and a pool of packages. This update repository can then be
used for testing updates and once tested it can be published externally, so
that the appliances in the field can get their updates.
Enabling updates in Studio UI
While creating the build
profile for your appliance you can add the update management service to enable
updates for your appliance, once this service is enabled the build profile
wizard will ask you to enter additional details.
Note: To publish to the same update repository the appliance version needs to be incremented.
a) Repository Access Methods
The appliance will use either a CD-ROM or will connect to
the specified URL to obtain updates. Later
on, the appliance user can also point to a local (alternate) repository to
obtain updates, this can be configured by the appliance user using VAMI web
b) Repository Server Settings
As a part of the build, Studio will
create an update repository at the specified location using the SCP information
entered. Repository server is usually the staging server (see next section for
more information) for the appliance updates.
c) Repository Export Settings
If you’d like to save a copy of the
update repository in either zip format, or create a CD-ROM based repository that
can be used to update the appliance it can be specified here.
Please refer to Studio
Developer's Guide documentation for more information.
A staging server is usually a
location within the organization. This location is used by Studio to publish
the updates during appliance build. This repository can also be used to test
the update before releasing the update.
Advanced Option – Update scripts
Studio provides ability for
the author of the appliance to specify scripts that can be run before or after
installation of packages (i.e. rpms or debs). A good example of such a script
would be: deletion of a package which already is present in the VM and would
cause conflict with a package in the update.
To edit these scripts, open
the build profile using an XML editor (located at
/opt/vmware/var/lib/build/profiles directory in the Studio VM), and change the
default content of <vadk:PreInstallShellScript> and/or <vadk:PostInstallShellScript> under
Note: Scripts added will
have to be XML encoded to ensure that it is valid XML.
Updating your Appliance
The appliance can be updated
by the appliance user using either the VAMI Web Console, CLI on the appliance,
or using vSphere Client/vCenter.
Using the VAMI web console,
the appliance user can check for updates, update the appliance, schedule
automatic updates, and specify alternate methods of obtaining updates.
If updates are being received
from an external repository then the user simply clicks on the Check button to
query if any updates are present, and if there are any updates present user
clicks on the Install button to update the appliance.
If an update is received as a
CD-ROM ISO file, then the user can attach the ISO file to the CD-ROM device of
the appliance, and run check/install operations as a user would for an external
Studio in addition provides
vamicli, a command line tool on the appliance, using which the appliance can be
Please refer to Studio User’s
Guide for more information.
It is recommended that the
author of the appliance, test updates before releasing the update to the
appliance users. In order to test the appliance which is built with an external
repository URL, the author can deploy the appliance inside the organization,
and change the repository URL to the staging server URL or use a CD-ROM based
update using the VAMI web console.
Integration with vCenter for centralized update
VMware vCenter Update Manager
a vCenter plugin allows users of appliances (built with VMware Studio) to
update their appliances. The remediation process during which the appliance is
update can either be started manually or as a scheduled task. With Update
Manager multiple appliances can be updated at the same time, when an appliance
boots up VMware Update Manager automatically discovers that the VM has VMware
Studio’s update agent in the VM and allows users to scan and remediate
Users can also define
baselines. Baselines are rules that the administrator of an appliance can
define using Update manager, an example would be: an appliance must always be
at the latest version. Using baselines the administrator can check appliances
More information on how to
use Update Manager can be found in the Studio User’s Guide.
Have fun publishing updates for your appliances!