VMware ESX is an excellent platform for deploying Java
applications. Many customers use it to
support Java applications from the desktop to business-critical enterprise
servers. However, we haven't published
any results recently highlighting the excellent performance of Java
applications on VMware ESX. As a first
step at remedying this situation, we compared native and virtualized
performance using SPECjvm2008. This
workload is a benchmark suite containing several real life applications and
benchmarks focusing on core java functionality. The results demonstrate that
Java applications run on VMware vSphere at greater than 94% of native performance
over a range of VM sizes. This is up to
a 9% improvement over VMware ESX 3.5, which already runs this workload at close
to or better than 90% of native performance.
We ran SPECjvm2008 on Red Hat Enterprise Server 5 Update 3 using
the latest JVM from Sun Microsystems, JRE 1.6 Update 13. Tests were conducted with both 32-bit and
64-bit versions of the OS and JVM. An HP DL380G5 equipped with two quad-core Intel
Xeon X5460 (Harpertown) processors running at 3.16GHz was used. This server had 32GB of memory. For native runs using less than the full
number of available CPU cores, we used the kernel boot parameter maxcpus= to limit the OS to a given
number of cores. We also used the kernel
boot parameter mem= to limit the
memory to 16GB in all 64-bit runs. The
runs on VMware vSphere 4.0 and VMware ESX 3.5 Update 4 were done in virtual machines
(VMs) using the stated number of virtual CPU s and 16GB of memory.
The runs of SPECjvm2008 were all base runs, meaning that no
Java tuning parameters were used. All
SPECjvm2008 results are required to include a base run. Unfortunately, the default heap size of the
Sun JVM in the 1 CPU case is not large enough to run the SPECjvm2008
workload. As a result, we were not able
to generate 1 CPU results which would be compliant with the run-rules for
SPECjvm2008. We did generate native and vSphere
4.0 results for 2, 4, and 8 CPUs, and ESX 3.5 results for 2 and 4 CPUs.
Figure 1 shows the SPECjvm2008 results for the native,
VMware vSphere 4.0, and VMware ESX 3.5 cases.
Figure 2 presents the same results normalized to the native result for
that server and CPU count. These results
show that VMs running on VMware vSphere 4.0 perform at greater than 95% of
native on this benchmark at all VM sizes.
Even with 8 vCPUs running on a server with only 8 physical cores, the
vSphere 4.0 VM achieves 99% of native performance. The
VMware ESX 3.5 VMs ran at close to or greater than 90% of native, which is
still excellent for a virtualized environment.
However, for 64-bit VMs, vSphere 4.0 gives a performance improvement over
ESX 3.5U4 of 9% in the 4 vCPU case, and about 3% in the 2 vCPU case.
Figure 1 SPECjvm2008 on 8-Core Intel
Figure 2 SPECjvm2008 performance relative to native
In order to sanity-check the
native results, we compared the 8-Core Harpertown result using the 64-bit OS
and JVM to the closest published result.
There is no directly comparable result, but there is a result generated
by Sun on a 16-Core Intel Tigerton Server.
The Tigerton is architecturally similar to the Harpertown, but the
Harpertown has a larger L2 cache. The
Sun 16-core Tigerton result, using Solaris 10, a special performance build of
the Sun JVM (1.6.0_06p), and 64GB of memory, achieved 260 SPECjvm2008
ops/m. Our native result on the 8-core Harpertown with 16GB of memory was 145 SPECjvm2008 ops/m. A
native run on the Harpertown with 32GB and using the Sun 1.6.0_06p JVM achieved
174 SPECjvm2008 ops/m. This is well more
than half of the Tigerton result, and indicates that our native configuration
is producing reasonable results.
Figure 3 shows the scaling of
the results as we move from 2 to 4 and 8 CPUs for the 64-bit case. The scaling is essentially the same for
32-bit. The results are normalized to
the 2 CPU results on the same platform.
These results show that VMware vSphere 4.0 scales as well as or better
than native for this workload. VMware
ESX 3.5 scaling is just slightly below native.
Figure 3 shows the scaling of
Figure 3 SPECjvm2008 Scaling from 2
The SPECjvm2008 results presented here show that core Java
functionality runs extremely well on VMware vSphere 4.0 and VMware ESX
3.5. No special tuning was required to
get results that are remarkably close to native performance. We hope to soon produce additional results to
demonstrate that this excellent performance extends to multi-tier Java Enterprise
Edition applications as well. For comments or questions, please join us in the VMware Performance Community at this thread: http://communities.vmware.com/message/1262696